SharpLeaf Tutorials > APL paragraphs

## APL paragraphs

Here’s the definition of the sample paragraphs used in a couple of SharpLeaf tutorials

```   aplparas = new string[]{"The mathematical notation for manipulating arrays which "+
"developed into the APL programming language was developed by Iverson at "+
"Harvard University starting in 1957, and published in his A Programming "+
"Language in 1962. The preface states its premise:","Applied mathematics "+
"is largely concerned with the design and analysis of explicit procedures "+
"for calculating the exact or approximate values of various functions. "+
"Such explicit procedures are called algorithms or programs. Because an "+
"effective notation for the description of programs exhibits considerable "+
"syntactic structure, it is called a programming language.","In 1960, he "+
"began work for IBM and, working with Adin Falkoff, created APL based on "+
"the notation he had developed. This notation was used inside IBM for "+
"short research reports on computer systems, such as the Burroughs B5000 "+
"and its stack mechanism when stack machines versus register machines were "+
"being evaluated by IBM for upcoming computers.","Also in 1960, Iverson "+
"used his notation in a draft of the chapter \"A Programming Language\", "+
"written for a book he was writing with Fred Brooks, Automatic Data "+
"Processing, which would be published in 1963.","As early as 1962, the "+
"first attempt to use the notation to describe a complete computer system "+
"happened after Falkoff discussed with Dr. William C. Carter his work in "+
"the standardization of the instruction set for the machines that later "+
"became the IBM System/360 family.","In 1963, Herbert Hellerman, working "+
"at the IBM Systems Research Institute, implemented a part of the notation "+
"on an IBM 1620 computer, and it was used by students in a special high "+
"school course on calculating transcendental functions by series "+
"summation. Students tested their code in Hellerman's lab. This "+
"implementation of a portion of the notation was called PAT (Personalized "+
"Array Translator).","In 1963, Falkoff, Iverson, and Edward H. Sussenguth "+
"Jr., all working at IBM, used the notation for a formal description of "+
"the IBM System/360 series machine architecture and functionality, which "+
"resulted in a paper published in IBM Systems Journal in 1964. After this "+
"was published, the team turned their attention to an implementation of "+
"the notation on a computer system. One of the motivations for this focus "+
"of implementation was the interest of John L. Lawrence who had new duties "+
"with Science Research Associates, an educational company bought by IBM in "+
"1964. Lawrence asked Iverson and his group to help utilize the language "+
"as a tool for the development and use of computers in education.","After "+
"Lawrence M. Breed and Philip S. Abrams of Stanford University joined the "+
"team at IBM Research, they continued their prior work on an "+
"implementation programmed in FORTRAN IV for a portion of the notation was "+
"done for the IBM 7090 computer running under the IBSYS operating system. "+
"This work was finished in late 1965 and later known as IVSYS (Iverson "+
"System). The basis of this implementation was described in detail by "+
"Abrams in a Stanford University Technical Report, \"An Interpreter for "+
"Iverson Notation\" in 1966. Like Hellerman's PAT system earlier, this "+
"implementation did not include the APL character set but used special "+
"English reserved words for functions and operators. The system was later "+
"adapted for a time-sharing system and, by November 1966, it had been "+
"reprogrammed for the IBM/360 Model 50 computer running in a time sharing "+
"mode and was used internally at IBM.","IBM typeballs (one OCR) with clip, "+
"€2 coin for scale","A key development in the ability to use APL "+
"effectively, before the widespread use of CRT terminals, was the "+
"development of a special IBM Selectric typewriter interchangeable "+
"typeball with all the special APL characters on it. This was used on "+
"paper printing terminal workstations using the Selectric typewriter and "+
"typeball mechanism, such as the IBM 1050 and IBM 2741 terminal. Keycaps "+
"could be placed over the normal keys to show which APL characters would "+
"be entered and typed when that key was struck. For the first time, a "+
"programmer could actually type in and see real APL characters as used in "+
"Iverson's notation and not be forced to use awkward English keyword "+
"representations of them. Falkoff and Iverson had the special APL "+
"Selectric typeballs, 987 and 988, designed in late 1964, although no APL "+
"computer system was available to use them. Iverson cited Falkoff as the "+
"inspiration for the idea of using an IBM Selectric typeball for the APL "+
"character set.","A programmer's view of the IBM 2741 keyboard layout with "+
"the APL typeball print head inserted","Some APL symbols, even with the "+
"APL characters on the typeball, still had to be typed in by over-striking "+
"two existing typeball characters. An example would be the \"grade up\" "+
"character, which had to be made from a \"delta\" (shift-H) and a "+
"\"Sheffer stroke\" (shift-M). This was necessary because the APL "+
"character set was larger than the 88 characters allowed on the Selectric "+
"typeball.","The first APL interactive login and creation of an APL "+
"workspace was in 1966 by Larry Breed using an IBM 1050 terminal at the "+
"IBM Mohansic Labs near Thomas J. Watson Research Center, the home of APL, "+
"in Yorktown Heights, New York.","IBM was chiefly responsible for the "+
"introduction of APL to the marketplace. APL was first available in 1967 "+
"for the IBM 1130 as APL\\1130. It would run in as little as 8k 16-bit "+
"words of memory, and used a dedicated 1 megabyte hard disk."};
```